b. Book II
He splits good things with the around three categories: something good in themselves, something an excellent both in on their own as well as the outcomes, and you can anything a good only for the consequences (357b-d). Socrates cities justice about group of one thing a beneficial in themselves and also for their outcomes.
Glaucon renews Thrasymachus’ conflict so you can issue Socrates to protect fairness by the by itself for granted off exactly what comes from it (358b ff.). Glaucon offers a presentation shielding injustice: (i) justice develop due to the fact a damage between poor people that are frightened you to distress injustice was tough than just doing it (358e-359a); (ii) somebody work justly because this is expected and you will inevitable, thus justice is great just for the consequences (tale of your ring out of Gyges’ predecessor, 359c-360d); (iii) new unjust individual for the reputation for fairness is actually happy than simply the fresh only person into reputation of injustice (360d-362c).
Adeimantus develops Glaucon’s shelter regarding injustice and you will assault into fairness by the asserting: the brand new history of justice is better than justice itself, so that the unjust individual that is able to keep the profile of being only is pleased versus only person; discussion of various ways that brand new unfair can acquire the latest character to have fairness (362d-366d).
Socrates try questioned to protect fairness having alone, perhaps not to the character it allows to possess (367b). The guy proposes to see fairness in town basic and you may then so you’re able to proceed by analogy discover justice inside them (368c-369a). This method will allow for a sharper view on concern from whether or not the merely person is delighted as compared to unfair individual. Socrates starts because of the discussing the latest sources of political lifetime and you can constructs an only urban area from inside the message you to suits only first human basics (369b-372c). Socrates contends you to people enter governmental existence once the each is maybe not self-enough by nature. Per peoples provides specific sheer efficiency (370a) and you will undertaking just the single occupations one is of course fitted to, is among the most efficient way in order to satisfy the needs of all of the the fresh people (370c). Glaucon items you to definitely Socrates’ urban area is just too basic phone calls they “a region out-of pigs” (372d). Socrates makes reference to a local that allows having privileges (“an effective feverish area,” 372e-373e). Socrates highlights the luxurious area requires an armed forces siti donnone nere to safeguard the town (373e). The brand new armed forces might be consisting of elite group soldiers, the latest guardians, which, such as for example pet, need to be gentle to other citizens and you will severe to help you foes (375c). The brand new guardians have to be experienced very carefully in an effort to-do their job off securing the city’s owners, statutes, and community well (376d). Poetry and you can stories need to be censored to ensure such as for instance an enthusiastic training (377b). Poetry is always to: (i) present the gods of the same quality and only since the causes of a good (379a); (ii) as the unchanging in form (380d); (iii) as the beings who refrain from lays and you will deceit (381e).
c. Guide III
Socrates goes on the brand new governmental measures of censorship out of poetry: (iv) the new underworld should not be illustrated as the a bad lay so the guardians will never be as well scared of death (386b); (v) the latest heroes and you will gods shouldn’t be presented lamenting so as that the fresh new guardians can form courage (387e); (vi) poetry is prevent individuals from laughing violently (388e); (vii) poetry is always to bring the new guardian’s sense of facts-informing however with the fresh readiness to sit if this is actually that lead with the a good of town (389b); (viii) it has to give thinking-discipline and behavior (389c-d); (ix) it should perhaps not tend to be stories you to definitely subscribe greed (390d); (x) it has to perhaps not tend to be tales one subscribe to hubris or impiety (391a). Socrates moves on to discuss the manner where tales would be to find out (392d). He splits instance ways into the effortless narration (during the third people) and you can imitative narration (in basic person, 392d). To keep new guardians carrying out simply their job, Socrates argues your guardians get replicate only what exactly is appropriate for it (394e-395d). New just city is to make it just settings and you will rhythms that suit the content of poetry greeting about merely urban area (398b-399c). Socrates demonstrates to you how good art can lead to the synthesis of an effective profile and work out some one more likely to follow its cause (400e-402c). Socrates converts on the actual education of your guardians and you will says it includes actual studies one to prepares them getting combat, a mindful diet, and you can patterns you to subscribe to the brand new protection off medical professionals (403c-405b). Bodily education are going to be targeted to benefit the latest spirit rather than your body, since the human body always advantages when the soul is during a good good condition, whereas the latest heart cannot fundamentally benefit if the body is inside the a great status (410b-c).